The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belize is headed by a Chief Executive Officer and the work of the Ministry is implemented through four directorates: Foreign Policy, Cooperation, Protocol and Consular Matters. The Policy, Consular and Protocol Directorates are formed up by a cadre of Foreign Service professionals who are assigned responsibilities either on a geographic or thematic basis as appropriate.

Heads of Mission (Ambassadors, Consul-Generals, Permanent Representatives, High Commissioners), report to and receive direction from the Ministry through the Chief Executive Officer and Directorates. In most cases, their policy, thematic, geographic or administrative issues are responded to by Foreign Service Officers and clerical and support staff at Headquarters.

The current process of the Belize/Guatemala Territorial Differendum necessitated the establishment of the Referendum Commission to implement and coordinate a Public Awareness Education Campaign to provide information to the Belizean public so that they can make an informed decision, when the referendum is called, for them to decide if the Guatemalan Claim on Belize should be taken to the International Criminal Court for adjudication.

There is also the Secretariat on Relations with Guatemala. This Secretariat is housed in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation and is charged with servicing and supporting issues dealing with the Belize – Guatemala territorial differendum.